During the first decade of this new millennium, it is estimated that more than EUR100 billion will be invested in the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) in Europe. This fact represents an amazing challenge from both a technical and commercial perspective. Written by experts in the field, this book gives a detailed description of the elements in the UMTS network architecture: the User Equipment (UE), the UMTS Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and the core network. The completely new protocols based on the needs of the new Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) air interface are highlighted by considering both Frequency- and Time-Division Duplex modes. The book further introduces the key features of existing topics in Releases 5, 6 and 7.
This book provides the fundamentals and recent advances in nano and micromachining for modern manufacturing engineering. It begins by outlining nanomachining before discussing various advances in field and machining processes. The coverage concludes with an evaluation of subsurface damages in nano and micromachining and a presentation of applications in industry. As such, this book serves both as a useful classroom text for engineering and machining courses at the undergraduate and graduate level, and as a reference for academics and engineers in these areas.
This book provides a thorough examination and analysis of cutting-edge research and security solutions in wireless and mobile networks. It begins with coverage of the basic security concepts and fundamentals which underpin and provide the knowledge necessary for understanding and evaluating security issues, challenges, and solutions. This material will be of invaluable use to all those working in the network security field, and especially to the many people entering the field. The next area of focus is on the security issues and available solutions associated with off-the-shelf wireless and mobile technologies such as Bluetooth, WiFi, WiMax, 2G, and 3G. There is coverage of the security techniques used to protect applications downloaded by mobile terminals through mobile cellular networks, and finally the book addresses security issues and solutions in emerging wireless and mobile technologies such as ad hoc and sensor networks, cellular 4G and IMS networks.
This helpful resource covers a large range of information regarding electrical actuators. In particular, robustness, a very problematic issue, is fully explored in a dedicated chapter. The text also deals with he estimate of non-measurable mechanical variables by examining the estimate of load moment, then observation of the positioning of a command without mechanical sensor. Finally, it examines the conditions needed to measure variables and real implementation of numerical algorithms. This is a key working resource for electrical engineers.
This book is dedicated to the general study of fluid structure interaction with consideration of uncertainties. The fluid-structure interaction is the study of the behavior of a solid in contact with a fluid, the response can be strongly affected by the action of the fluid. These phenomena are common and are sometimes the cause of the operation of certain systems, or otherwise manifest malfunction. The vibrations affect the integrity of structures and must be predicted to prevent accelerated wear of the system by material fatigue or even its destruction when the vibrations exceed a certain threshold.
This book explores the impact of information systems on the management of North-South asymmetric strategic alliances through a series of in-depth case studies which analyze different types of partnerships. Positioned at the heart of the value creation process, the choice of information system seems to be becoming a strategic issue which should be centered not only on the organizational decisions related to the type of alliance but also the management systems of each of the partners. The authors provide an understanding of the nature of this relationship between the organizational structure and the method of information system integration in asymmetric alliances. The in-depth analysis of strategic alliance case-studies illustrates the different methods of information system integration, which are themselves linked to the organisational and structural choices of the alliance. These methods are characterized by information-sharing and coordination mechanisms as well as the balance of control over shared activities developed by the distinct partners.
Strategy is the art of thinking about war before it occurs. Noting that space already plays a role in all of today's wars, Space Strategy studies how conflicts are extending into this new domain. The book defines extra-atmospheric space and focuses on its varying features and constraints. By exploring the opportunities for action provided by different strategic positions, the book analyzes the most plausible combat scenarios from, against and within space. It explains the concepts of militarization, weaponization and martialization of space and shows how space systems constitute an essential component of information literacy - the key to power in the 21st Century.
Space Strategy then demonstrates why our society, having become space-dependent, must take appropriate measures to develop its spatioresilience. Finally, the author summarizes his reflections in the form of a mnemonic listing twelve principles of space strategy.
Completed by educational appendices and a glossary containing one thousand entries, Space Strategy meets the needs of students, researchers or any other reader curious about expanding their knowledge of strategy.
Near field communication (NFC) can appear to be a simple intuitive technology for exchanging data between close devices. In reality, these contactless structures that combine components and antennas must respect important and specific working constraints. Illustrated by a number of detailed technological examples, this book discusses the multiple normative (ISO, CEN, NFC Forum, EMVCo, etc.) and regulatory (ERC, FCC, ETSI, radiofrequency, private and ecological pollution, etc.) constraints, as well as the applied, typological, functional, structural, environmental or interoperability constraints that a NFC device might face. Design Constraints for NFC Devices also presents techniques that enable us to free ourselves from the technological constraints of current NFC operations encountered in banking, public transport, administration, automotive, industrial, communicating object and Internet of Things applications.
Flows with chemical reactions can occur in various fields such as combustion, process engineering, aeronautics, the atmospheric environment and aquatics.
The examples of application chosen in this book mainly concern homogeneous reactive mixtures that can occur in propellers within the fields of process engineering and combustion:
- propagation of sound and monodimensional flows in nozzles, which may include disequilibria of the internal modes of the energy of molecules;
- ideal chemical reactors, stabilization of their steady operation points in the homogeneous case of a perfect mixture and classical instruments of experimental and theoretical analysis such as population balances, and the distribution of residence and passage times;
- laminar and turbulent flames, separating those which are premixed from those which are not and which do not exhibit the same mechanisms, but which also occur in the case of triple flames.
Flows and Chemical Reactions in Homogeneous Mixtures provides information on dimensional analysis, statistical thermodynamics with coupling between internal modes and chemical reactions, the apparition and damping of fluid turbulence as well as its statistical processing, bifurcations, flames in a confined medium and diffusion.
Contents 1. Flows in Nozzles.
2. Chemical Reactors.
3. Laminar and Turbulent Flames.
Appendix 1. Dimensionless Numbers, Similarity.
Appendix 2. Thermodynamic Functions.
Appendix 3. Concepts of Turbulence.
Appendix 4. Thermodynamic functions for a mixture in disequilibrium.
Appendix 5. Notion of bifurcation.
Appendix 6. Confined flame.
Appendix 7. Limits of Validity of the First-order Expansions for Diffusion Flames.
Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural templates and styles, their formalization, validation and testing and finally the engineering approach in which these consistent and autonomous elements can be tackled.
This book is a summary of more than a decade of research in the area of backend optimization. It contains the latest fundamental research results in this field. While existing books are often more oriented toward Masters students, this book is aimed more towards professors and researchers as it contains more advanced subjects.
It is unique in the sense that it contains information that has not previously been covered by other books in the field, with chapters on phase ordering in optimizing compilation; register saturation in instruction level parallelism; code size reduction for software pipelining; memory hierarchy effects and instruction level parallelism.
Other chapters provide the latest research results in well-known topics such as register need, and software pipelining and periodic register allocation.
CENELEC EN 50128 and IEC 62279 standards are applicable to the performance of software in the railway sector. The 2011 version of the 50128 standard firms up the techniques and methods to be implemented. This is a guide to its implementation, in order to understand the foundations of the standard and how it impacts on the activities to be undertaken, helping towards better a preparation for the independent evaluation phase, which is mandatory.
The patent system is criticized today by some practitioners and economists. In fact, there is a partial disconnection between patent demographics and productivity gains, but also the development of actors who do not innovate and who develop business models that their detractors equate with a capture of annuities or a dangerous commodification of patents. This book provides a less Manichaean view of the position of patents in the system of contemporary innovation. It first recalls that these criticisms are not new, before arguing that if these criticisms have been revived, it is because of a partial shift from an integrated innovation system to a much more fragmented and open system. This shift accompanied the promotion of a more competitive economy. The authors show that this movement is coherent with a more intensive use of patents, but also one that is more focused on their signal function than on their function of direct monetary incentive to innovation.
Modern science is at a tipping point. A new page in the history of knowledge opens with the "information paradigm", a notion which is gradually supplanting the old mechanistic vision inherited from Galileo and Newton. The author presents an overview of the place of information and communications in our time, explaining some reasons for focusing on these two notions. All areas of knowledge are concerned: philosophy, social sciences, biology, medicine, as well as physics, the so-called "queen of sciences", from quantum to cosmos. This book is intended for scientific scholars as well as those with just a general interest who are anxious to understand the major evolutions that are taking shape in fields of knowledge in the 21st Century.
Practices associated with the culture of "scholarly" reading have been developed over many centuries and annotations themselves have become the subject of study, either as additional elements in connection with the original texts or as documents in their own right. The first "scholarly" reading techniques, seen historically from the 12th Century onwards, combine reading and writing in a process known as lettrure, involving both attentive reading and commentary. The Internet has transformed this activity, adding technical layers that relate both to the reading and writing process as well as to the circulation of texts; their potential and effective augmentation, diffusion, and reception. This book examines digitized reading and writing by focusing primarily on the conditions for the co-construction of scientific knowledge and its augmentation. The authors present numerous examples of studies and personal feedback concerning the intellectual process, open critical spaces, collaborative scholarly publishing, methods for the circulation and mediatization of knowledge, as well as the techniques and tools employed.
Everyone, whether they like it or not, is exposed to electromagnetic fields, most of the time, at very low levels. In this case, they are inconsequential, but they can cause adverse health effects when they become intense enough. This topic is complex and sensitive. Covering frequencies from 0 Hz to 300 GHz, Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields provides an overview of this vast topic. After a reminder of the concepts of electromagnetic fields, the author presents some examples of sources of radiation in daily life and in the industrial or medical sectors. The biophysical and biological effects of these fields on the human body are detailed and the exposure limits are recalled. The exposure assessment and the implementation of the appropriate regulation within companies are also covered. Technically and practically, this book is aimed at people with a scientific background, risk prevention actors, health physicians, especially occupational doctors, and equipment designers.
This book serves as a general introduction to food science and technology, based on the academic courses presented by the authors as well as their personal research experiences. The authors' main focus is on the biological and physical-chemical stabilization of food, and the quality assessment control methods and normative aspects of the subsequent processes. Presented across three parts, the authors offer a detailed account of the scientific basis and technological knowledge needed to understand agro-food transformation. From biological analyses and process engineering, through to the development of food products and biochemical and microbiological changes, the different parts cover all aspects of the control of food quality.
Volume 1 presents successively an introduction followed by 10 chapters and a conclusion: A logistic approach an overview of operations research The basics of graph theory calculating optimal routes Dynamic programming planning and scheduling with PERT and MPM the waves of calculations in a network spanning trees and touring linear programming modeling of road traffic
The aim of this book is the study of signals and deterministic systems, linear, time-invariant, finite dimensions and causal. A set of useful tools is selected for the automatic and signal processing and methods of representation of dynamic linear systems are exposed, and analysis of their behavior. Finally we discuss the estimation, identification and synthesis of control laws for the purpose of stabilization and regulation. The study of signal characteristics and properties systems and knowledge of mathematical tools and treatment methods and analysis, are lately more and more importance and continue to evolve. The reason is that the current state of technology, particularly electronics and computing, enables the production of very advanced processing systems, effective and less expensive despite the complexity.
Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.
The author of this book presents a general, robust, and easy-to-use method that can handle many design parameters efficiently.
Following an introduction, Chapter 1 presents the general concepts of truss layout optimization, starting from topology optimization where structural component sizes and system connectivity are simultaneously optimized. To fully realize the potential of truss layout optimization for the design of lightweight structures, the consideration of geometrical variables is then introduced.
Chapter 2 addresses truss geometry and topology optimization by combining mathematical programming and structural mechanics: the structural properties of the optimal solution are used for devising the novel formulation. To avoid singularities arising in optimal configurations, this approach disaggregates the equilibrium equations and fully integrates their basic elements within the optimization formulation. The resulting tool incorporates elastic and plastic design, stress and displacement constraints, as well as self-weight and multiple loading. The inherent slenderness of lightweight structures requires the study of stability issues.
As a remedy, Chapter 3 proposes a conceptually simple but efficient method to include local and nodal stability constraints in the formulation. Several numerical examples illustrate the impact of stability considerations on the optimal design.
Finally, the investigation on realistic design problems in Chapter 4 confirms the practical applicability of the proposed method. It is shown how we can generate a range of optimal designs by varying design settings.
This book covers the theoretical problems of modeling electrical behavior of the interconnections encountered in everyday electronic products. The coverage shows the theoretical tools of waveform prediction at work in the design of a complex and high-speed digital electronic system. Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource.
Linear systems have all the necessary elements (modeling, identification, analysis and control), from an educational point of view, to help us understand the discipline of automation and apply it efficiently. This book is progressive and organized in such a way that different levels of readership are possible. It is addressed both to beginners and those with a good understanding of automation wishing to enhance their knowledge on the subject. The theory is rigorously developed and illustrated by numerous examples which can be reproduced with the help of appropriate computation software. 60 exercises and their solutions are included to enable the readers to test and enhance their knowledge.
At a time when people use more and more geographic information and tools, the management of geographical information in software systems still holds many challenges and motivates researchers from different backgrounds to propose innovative solutions.
Representing geographical space beyond our mere perception is key to making relevant decisions, whether it is with respect to sustainable development or to the planning of everyday activities. Designing, sharing and exploiting such representations entails many challenges.
This book presents recent software design projects, led in teams, which sometimes have different backgrounds, to address these challenges. It analyzes the specificities of these projects in terms of motivation, data models and analysis methods. Proposals are also put forward to improve resource sharing in this domain. Contents 1. Introduction, Bénédicte Bucher and Florence Le Ber.
Part 1. Software Presentation
2. ORBISGIS: Geographical Information System Designed by and for Research, Erwan Bocher and Gwendall Petit.
3. GEOXYGENE: an Interoperable Platform for Geographical Application Development, Éric Grosso, Julien Perret and Mickaël Brasebin.
4. Spatiotemporal Knowledge Representation in AROM-ST, Bogdan Moisuc, Alina Miron, Marlène Villanova-Olivier and Jérôme Gensel.
5. GENGHIS: an Environment for the Generation of Spatiotemporal Visualization Interfaces, Paule-Annick Davoine, Bogdan Moisuc and Jérôme Gensel.
6. GEOLIS: a Logical Information System to Organize and Search Geo-Located Data, Olivier Bedel, Sébastien Ferré and Olivier Ridoux.
7. GENEXP-LANDSITES: a 2D Agricultural Landscape Generating Piece of Software, Florence Le Ber and Jean-François Mari.
8. MDWEB: Cataloging and Locating Environmental Resources, Jean-Christophe Desconnets and Thérèse Libourel.
9. WEBGEN: Web Services to Share Cartographic Generalization Tools, Moritz Neun, Nicolas Regnauld and Robert Weibel.
Part 2. Summary and Suggestions
10. Analysis of the Specificities of Software Development in Geomatics Research, Florence Le Ber and Bénédicte Bucher.
11. Challenges and Proposals for Software Development Pooling in Geomatics, Bénédicte Bucher, Julien Gaffuri, Florence Le Ber and Thérèse Libourel.