Nitrification and Denitrification in the Activated Sludge Process, the first in a series on the microbiology of wastewater treatment, comprises the critical topics of cost-effective operation, permit compliance, process control, and troubleshooting in wastewater treatment plants. Avoiding the technical jargon, chemical equations, and kinetics that typically accompany such texts, Nitrification and Denitrification in the Activated Sludge Process directly addresses plant operators and technicians, providing necessary information for understanding the microbiology and biological conditions that occur in the treatment process. Of special interest to wastewater treatment plant operators are the bacteria that degrade nitrogenous wastes-the nitrifying bacteria-and the bacteria that degrade carbonaceous wastes-the cBOD-removing bacteria. Both groups of bacteria need to be routinely monitored and operational conditions favorably adjusted to ensure desired nitrification. Each chapter in this groundbreaking study offers a better understanding of the importance of nitrification and denitrification and the bacteria involved in these crucial processes. Chapters include: Organotrophs The Wastewater Nitrogen Cycle Nitrite Ion Accumulation Dissolved Oxygen Denitrifying Bacteria Gaseous End Products Free Molecular Oxygen The Occurrence of Denitrification
A timely and authoritative guide to the state of the art of wave scattering
Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves offers in three volumes a complete and up-to-date treatment of wave scattering by random discrete scatterers and rough surfaces. Written by leading scientists who have made important contributions to wave scattering over three decades, this new work explains the principles, methods, and applications of this rapidly expanding, interdisciplinary field. It covers both introductory and advanced material and provides students and researchers in remote sensing as well as imaging, optics, and electromagnetic theory with a one-stop reference to a wealth of current research results. Plus, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves contains detailed discussions of both analytical and numerical methods, including cutting-edge techniques for the recovery of earth/land parametric information.
The three volumes are entitled respectively Theories and Applications, Numerical Simulation, and Advanced Topics. In the third volume, Advanced Topics, Leung Tsang (University of Washington) and Jin Au Kong (MIT), cover:
* Two-dimensional random rough surface scattering
* Kirchhoff and related methods for rough surface scattering
* Analytic theory of volume scattering based on cascading of layers
* Analytic wave theory for medium with permittivity fluctuations
* Multiple scattering theory for discrete scatterers
* Quasicrystalline approximation in dense media scattering
* Dense media scattering
* Backscattering enhancement
A timely and authoritative guide to the state of the art of wave scattering
Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves offers in three volumes a complete and up-to-date treatment of wave scattering by random discrete scatterers and rough surfaces. Written by leading scientists who have made important contributions to wave scattering over three decades, this new work explains the principles, methods, and applications of this rapidly expanding, interdisciplinary field. It covers both introductory and advanced material and provides students and researchers in remote sensing as well as imaging, optics, and electromagnetic theory with a one-stop reference to a wealth of current research results. Plus, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves contains detailed discussions of both analytical and numerical methods, including cutting-edge techniques for the recovery of earth/land parametric information.
The three volumes are entitled respectively Theories and Applications, Numerical Simulation, and Advanced Topics. In the second volume, Numerical Simulations, Leung Tsang (University of Washington) Jin Au Kong (MIT), Kung-Hau Ding (Air Force Research Lab), and Chi On Ao (MIT) cover:
* Layered media simulations
* Rough surface and volume scattering simulations
* Dense media models and simulations
* Electromagnetic scattering by discrete scatterers and a buried object
* Scattering by vertical cylinders above a surface
* Electromagnetic waves scattering by vegetation
* Computational methods and programs used for performing various simulations
Automata and natural language theory are topics lying at the heart of computer science. Both are linked to computational complexity and together, these disciplines help define the parameters of what constitutes a computer, the structure of programs, which problems are solvable by computers, and a range of other crucial aspects of the practice of computer science. In this important volume, two respected authors/editors in the field offer accessible, practice-oriented coverage of these issues with an emphasis on refining core problem solving skills.
Balanced coverage of the methodology and theory of numerical methods in finance
Numerical Methods in Finance bridges the gap between financial theory and computational practice while helping students and practitioners exploit MATLAB for financial applications.
Paolo Brandimarte covers the basics of finance and numerical analysis and provides background material that suits the needs of students from both financial engineering and economics perspectives. Classical numerical analysis methods; optimization, including less familiar topics such as stochastic and integer programming; simulation, including low discrepancy sequences; and partial differential equations are covered in detail. Extensive illustrative examples of the application of all of these methodologies are also provided.
The text is primarily focused on MATLAB-based application, but also includes descriptions of other readily available toolboxes that are relevant to finance. Helpful appendices on the basics of MATLAB and probability theory round out this balanced coverage. Accessible for students-yet still a useful reference for practitioners-Numerical Methods in Finance offers an expert introduction to powerful tools in finance.
Fundamental concepts of mathematical modeling
Modeling is one of the most effective, commonly used tools in engineering and the applied sciences. In this book, the authors deal with mathematical programming models both linear and nonlinear and across a wide range of practical applications.
Whereas other books concentrate on standard methods of analysis, the authors focus on the power of modeling methods for solving practical problems-clearly showing the connection between physical and mathematical realities-while also describing and exploring the main concepts and tools at work. This highly computational coverage includes:
* Discussion and implementation of the GAMS programming system
* Unique coverage of compatibility
* Illustrative examples that showcase the connection between model and reality
* Practical problems covering a wide range of scientific disciplines, as well as hundreds of examples and end-of-chapter exercises
* Real-world applications to probability and statistics, electrical engineering, transportation systems, and more
Building and Solving Mathematical Programming Models in Engineering and Science is practically suited for use as a professional reference for mathematicians, engineers, and applied or industrial scientists, while also tutorial and illustrative enough for advanced students in mathematics or engineering.
Presents up-to-date Banach space results.
* Features an extensive bibliography for outside reading.
* Provides detailed exercises that elucidate more introductory material.
Software Paradigms provides the first complete compilation of software paradigms commonly used to develop large software applications, with coverage ranging from discrete problems to full-scale applications. The book focuses on providing a structure for understanding a hierarchy of software development approaches, and showing the relationships between the different models. Coverage includes paradigms in design patterns, software components, software architectures, and frameworks. Chapters within each of these sections include design issues related to building and using the paradigm as well as numerous real world applications. A practical overview of the hierarchy of development paradigms, Software Paradigms is an excellent teaching tool for undergraduates and graduates, and a comprehensive and reliable reference for software engineers.
An in-depth treatment of array phenomena and all aspects of phased array analysis and design Phased Array Antennas, Second Edition is a comprehensive reference on the vastly evolving field of array antennas. The Second Edition continues to provide an in-depth evaluation of array phenomena with a new emphasis on developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade. The book offers the same detailed coverage of all practical and theoretical aspects of phased arrays as the first edition, but it now includes: New chapters on array-fed reflector antennas; connected arrays; and reflect arrays and retrodirective arrays Brand-new coverage of artificial magnetic conductors, and Bode matching limitations A clear explanation of the common misunderstanding of scan element pattern measurement, along with appropriate equations In-depth coverage of finite array Gibbsian models, photonic feeding and time delay, waveguide simulators, and beam orthogonality The book is complemented with a multitude of original curves and tables that illustrate how particular behaviors were derived from the author's hundreds of programs developed over the past forty years. Additionally, numerous computer design algorithms and numerical tips are included throughout the book to help aid in readers' comprehension. Phased Array Antennas, Second Edition is an ideal resource for antenna design engineers, radar engineers, PCS engineers, and communications engineers, or any professional who works to develop radar and telecommunications systems. It also serves as a valuable textbook for courses in phased array design and theory at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels.
Winner of the 2006 Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award! A comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and statistics of image science In today's visually oriented society, images play an important role in conveying messages. From seismic imaging to satellite images to medical images, our modern society would be lost without images to enhance our understanding of our health, our culture, and our world. Foundations of Image Science presents a comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and statistics needed to understand and evaluate imaging systems. The book is the first to provide a thorough treatment of the continuous-to-discrete, or CD, model of digital imaging. Foundations of Image Science emphasizes the need for meaningful, objective assessment of image quality and presents the necessary tools for this purpose. Approaching the subject within a well-defined theoretical and physical context, this landmark text presents the mathematical underpinnings of image science at a level that is accessible to graduate students and practitioners working with imaging systems, as well as well-motivated undergraduate students. Destined to become a standard text in the field, Foundations of Image Science covers: Mathematical Foundations: Examines the essential mathematical foundations of image science Image Formation-Models and Mechanisms: Presents a comprehensive and unified treatment of the mathematical and statistical principles of imaging, with an emphasis on digital imaging systems and the use of SVD methods Image Quality: Provides a systematic exposition of the methodology for objective or task-based assessment of image quality Applications: Presents detailed case studies of specific direct and indirect imaging systems and provides examples of how to apply the various mathematical tools covered in the book Appendices: Covers the prerequisite material necessary for understanding the material in the main text, including matrix algebra, complex variables, and the basics of probability theory
Developed from the author's successful two-volume Calculus text this book presents Linear Algebra without emphasis on abstraction or formalization. To accommodate a variety of backgrounds, the text begins with a review of prerequisites divided into precalculus and calculus prerequisites. It continues to cover vector algebra, analytic geometry, linear spaces, determinants, linear differential equations and more.
1 The Atmosphere. 2 Atmospheric Trace Constituents. 3 Chemical Kinetics. 4 Atmospheric Radiation and Photochemistry. 5 Chemistry of the Stratosphere. 6 Chemistry of the Troposphere. 7 Chemistry of the Atmospheric Aqueous Phase. 8 Properties of the Atmospheric Aerosol. 9 Dynamics of Single Aerosol Particles. 10 Thermodynamics of Aerosols. 11 Nucleation. 12 Mass Transfer Aspects of Atmospheric Chemistry. 13 Dynamics of Aerosol Populations. 14 Organic Atmospheric Aerosols. 15 Interaction of Aerosols with Radiation. 16 Meteorology of the Local Scale. 17 Cloud Physics. 18 Atmospheric Diffusion. 19 Dry Deposition. 20 Wet Deposition. 21 General Circulation of the Atmosphere. 22 Global Cycles: Sulfur and Carbon. 23 Climate and Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere. 24 Aerosols and Climate. 25 Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models. 26 Statistical Models.
This set features
Linear Algebra and Its Applications, Second Edition (978-0-471-75156-4)
Linear Algebra and Its Applications, Second Edition presents linear algebra as the theory and practice of linear spaces and linear maps with a unique focus on the analytical aspects as well as the numerous applications of the subject. In addition to thorough coverage of linear equations, matrices, vector spaces, game theory, and numerical analysis, the Second Edition features student-friendly additions that enhance the book's accessibility, including expanded topical coverage in the early chapters, additional exercises, and solutions to selected problems.
Beginning chapters are devoted to the abstract structure of finite dimensional vector spaces, and subsequent chapters address convexity and the duality theorem as well as describe the basics of normed linear spaces and linear maps between normed spaces.
Further updates and revisions have been included to reflect the most up-to-date coverage of the topic, including: The QR algorithm for finding the eigenvalues of a self-adjoint matrix The Householder algorithm for turning self-adjoint matrices into tridiagonal form The compactness of the unit ball as a criterion of finite dimensionality of a normed linear space Additionally, eight new appendices have been added and cover topics such as: the Fast Fourier Transform; the spectral radius theorem; the Lorentz group; the compactness criterion for finite dimensionality; the characterization of commentators; proof of Liapunov's stability criterion; the construction of the Jordan Canonical form of matrices; and Carl Pearcy's elegant proof of Halmos' conjecture about the numerical range of matrices.
Clear, concise, and superbly organized, Linear Algebra and Its Applications, Second Edition serves as an excellent text for advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in linear algebra. Its comprehensive treatment of the subject also makes it an ideal reference or self-study for industry professionals.
and Functional Analysis (978-0-471-55604-6) both by Peter D. Lax.
An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new edition
Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.
A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed models is maintained throughout, and each chapter illustrates how these models are applicable in a wide array of contexts. In addition, a discussion of general methods for the analysis of such models is presented with an emphasis on the method of maximum likelihood for the estimation of parameters. The authors also provide comprehensive coverage of the latest statistical models for correlated, non-normally distributed data. Thoroughly updated to reflect the latest developments in the field, the Second Edition features: A new chapter that covers omitted covariates, incorrect random effects distribution, correlation of covariates and random effects, and robust variance estimation A new chapter that treats shared random effects models, latent class models, and properties of models A revised chapter on longitudinal data, which now includes a discussion of generalized linear models, modern advances in longitudinal data analysis, and the use between and within covariate decompositions Expanded coverage of marginal versus conditional models Numerous new and updated examples
With its accessible style and wealth of illustrative exercises, Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition is an ideal book for courses on generalized linear and mixed models at the upper-undergraduate and beginning-graduate levels. It also serves as a valuable reference for applied statisticians, industrial practitioners, and researchers.
One of the only texts available to cover not only how failure occurs but also examine methods developed to expose the reasons for failure, Metal Failures has long been considered the most definitive and authoritative resources in metallurgical failure analysis. Now in a completely revised edition, this Second Edition features updates of all chapters plus new coverage of elastic behavior and plastic deformation, localized necking, the phenomenological aspects of fatigue, fatigue crack propagation, alloys and coatings, tensors and tensor notations, and much more.
An outstanding introduction to the fundamentals of regression analysis-updated and expanded The methods of regression analysis are the most widely used statistical tools for discovering the relationships among variables. This classic text, with its emphasis on clear, thorough presentation of concepts and applications, offers a complete, easily accessible introduction to the fundamentals of regression analysis. Assuming only a basic knowledge of elementary statistics, Applied Regression Analysis, Third Edition focuses on the fitting and checking of both linear and nonlinear regression models, using small and large data sets, with pocket calculators or computers. This Third Edition features separate chapters on multicollinearity, generalized linear models, mixture ingredients, geometry of regression, robust regression, and resampling procedures. Extensive support materials include sets of carefully designed exercises with full or partial solutions and a series of true/false questions with answers. All data sets used in both the text and the exercises can be found on the companion disk at the back of the book. For analysts, researchers, and students in university, industrial, and government courses on regression, this text is an excellent introduction to the subject and an efficient means of learning how to use a valuable analytical tool. It will also prove an invaluable reference resource for applied scientists and statisticians.
As the Solutions Manual, this book is meant to accompany the main title, Nonlinear Programming: Theory and Algorithms, Third Edition. This book presents recent developments of key topics in nonlinear programming (NLP) using a logical and self-contained format. The volume is divided into three sections: convex analysis, optimality conditions, and dual computational techniques. Precise statements of algortihms are given along with convergence analysis. Each chapter contains detailed numerical examples, graphical illustrations, and numerous exercises to aid readers in understanding the concepts and methods discussed.
Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data Alan Agresti Statistical Science Now has its first coordinated manual of methods for analyzing ordered categorical data. This book discusses specialized models that, unlike standard methods underlying nominal categorical data, efficiently use the information on ordering. It begins with an introduction to basic descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data, and then gives thorough coverage of the most current developments, such as loglinear and logit models for ordinal data. Special emphasis is placed on interpretation and application of methods and contains an integrated comparison of the available strategies for analyzing ordinal data. This is a case study work with illuminating examples taken from across the wide spectrum of ordinal categorical applications. 1984 (0 471-89055-3) 287 pp. Regression Diagnostics Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity David A. Belsley, Edwin Kuh and Roy E. Welsch This book provides the practicing statistician and econometrician with new tools for assessing the quality and reliability of regression estimates. Diagnostic techniques are developed that aid in the systematic location of data points that are either unusual or inordinately influential; measure the presence and intensity of collinear relations among the regression data and help to identify the variables involved in each; and pinpoint the estimated coefficients that are potentially most adversely affected. The primary emphasis of these contributions is on diagnostics, but suggestions for remedial action are given and illustrated. 1980 (0 471-05856-4) 292 pp. Applied Regression Analysis Second Edition Norman Draper and Harry Smith Featuring a significant expansion of material reflecting recent advances, here is a complete and up-to-date introduction to the fundamentals of regression analysis, focusing on understanding the latest concepts and applications of these methods. The authors thoroughly explore the fitting and checking of both linear and nonlinear regression models, using small or large data sets and pocket or high-speed computing equipment. Features added to this Second Edition include the practical implications of linear regression; the Durbin-Watson test for serial correlation; families of transformations; inverse, ridge, latent root and robust regression; and nonlinear growth models. Includes many new exercises and worked examples. 1981 (0 471-02995-5) 709 pp.
Rave reviews for INTEGER AND COMBINATORIAL OPTIMIZATION
"This book provides an excellent introduction and survey of traditional fields of combinatorial optimization . . . It is indeed one of the best and most complete texts on combinatorial optimization . . . available. [And] with more than 700 entries, [it] has quite an exhaustive reference list."-Optima
"A unifying approach to optimization problems is to formulate them like linear programming problems, while restricting some or all of the variables to the integers. This book is an encyclopedic resource for such formulations, as well as for understanding the structure of and solving the resulting integer programming problems."-Computing Reviews
"[This book] can serve as a basis for various graduate courses on discrete optimization as well as a reference book for researchers and practitioners."-Mathematical Reviews
"This comprehensive and wide-ranging book will undoubtedly become a standard reference book for all those in the field of combinatorial optimization."-Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society
"This text should be required reading for anybody who intends to do research in this area or even just to keep abreast of developments."-Times Higher Education Supplement, London
Also of interest . . .
INTEGER PROGRAMMING Laurence A. Wolsey Comprehensive and self-contained, this intermediate-level guide to integer programming provides readers with clear, up-to-date explanations on why some problems are difficult to solve, how techniques can be reformulated to give better results, and how mixed integer programming systems can be used more effectively. 1998 (0-471-28366-5) 260 pp.
This book provides the first simultaneous coverage of the statistical aspects of simulation and Monte Carlo methods, their commonalities and their differences for the solution of a wide spectrum of engineering and scientific problems. It contains standard material usually considered in Monte Carlo simulation as well as new material such as variance reduction techniques, regenerative simulation, and Monte Carlo optimization.
The analytical toxicologist may be required to detect, identify, and in many cases measure a wide variety of compounds in samples from almost any part of the body or in related materials such as residues in syringes or in soil. This book gives principles and practical information on the analysis of drugs and poisons in biological specimens, particularly clinical and forensic specimens. After providing some background information the book covers aspects of sample collection, transport, storage and disposal, and sample preparation. Analytical techniques - colour tests and spectrophotometry, chromatography and electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and immunoassay - are covered in depth, and a chapter is devoted to the analysis of trace elements and toxic metals. General aspects of method implementation/validation and laboratory operation are detailed, as is the role of the toxicology laboratory in validating and monitoring the performance of point of care testing (POCT) devices. The book concludes with reviews of xenobiotic absorption, distribution and metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and general aspects of the interpretation of analytical toxicology results. A clearly written, practical, integrated approach to the basics of analytical toxicology. Focuses on analytical, statistical and pharmacokinetic principles rather than detailed applications. Assumes only a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. An accompanying website provides additional material and links to related sites. Written by an experienced team of authors,Fundamentals of Analytical Toxicology is an invaluable resource for those starting out in a career in analytical toxicology across a wide range of disciplines including clinical and forensic science, food safety, and pharmaceutical development. Praise from the reviews:
"This is an ambitious effort to describe in detail the many and varied aspects of the science of toxicological analysis. The 17 chapters cover every foreseeable aspect, from specimen collection through analytical techniques and quality control to pharmacological principles and interpretation of results. The authors bring together a great deal of experience in the field and have succeeded admirably in achieving their goal: "to give principles and practical information on the analysis of drugs, poisons and other relevant analytes in biological specimens...". The book is very readable and quite up-to-date, and contains many illustrative figures, charts and tables. Both the student and the practicing professional would do well to study this material carefully, as there is something here for every conceivable level of interest." Review from Randall Baselt "This text comes highly recommended for any analytical toxicology trainee." The Bulletin of the Royal College of Pathologists "Overall, this book provides a comprehensive, thorough, clear, up to date and practical treatment of analytical toxicology at a high standard. Understanding of the text is enhanced by the use of many illustrations. Specifications, guidelines, and methods are highlighted in grey background "Boxes". The many and up to date literature references in each chapter demonstrate the authors' thorough work and permit easy access to deeper information. Therefore this book can be highly recommended as a valuable source of knowledge in analytical toxicology both as an introduction and for the advanced reader." GTFCh Bulletin "Toxichem + Krimtech", May 2008 (translated, original review in German) "Many toxicologists will add this important reference to their libraries because it competently fills a need ..." International Journal of Toxicology
Scientific Freedom outlines what needs to be done to restore the freedom that can transform scientific understanding. The author defines Transformative Research (Venture Research) and explains how an initiative might be designed and implemented; discusses the revolutionary concept of low-risk, high-reward research; explains the wider significance of instability, and introduces the formidable Damocles Zone; explores threats to the university as an institution; and describes how a Transformative Research initiative might work in practice.
Uncover the mysteries that lie within your calculator This remarkable book explores the simple internal calculator processes-algorithms and programs-that tell us, for example, that the cosine of 56? is 0.5591929035. Using carefully constructed diagrams and figures, the author effectively demonstrates how calculator keys compute powers, roots, logarithms, and trigonometry functions, while also providing insights into simple programming, the conversion between decimal and binary numeration, and perhaps most importantly, the structure of our numeration systems. Many people believe that the processes that drive calculators demand advanced mathematical concepts; however, this book proves that a minimal understanding of algebra and geometry is all that is needed to follow the step-by-step explanations of how scientific calculators work. Inside Your Calculator: From Simple Programs to Significant Insights is a complete and multifaceted exercise in critical thinking. This book features: A detailed explanation of how to use a graphics calculator and program basic functions A discussion of the history of mathematics when appropriate, which provides a foundation for further learning Fundamental mathematical lessons and interesting applications of pre-calculus mathematics A thorough review of the fundamentals of programming, algebra, and geometry needed to gain insight into why the algorithms work and how the results are meaningful in our lives While the simultaneous use of a calculator is not needed to gain insight into how the algorithms work, those who do have a programmable graphics calculator can experiment with the programs presented in the book. These programs may be used on TI-84 and TI-83 calculators, and additional information for other Texas Instruments calculators as well as the Casio FX series is available on the book's related web site. As a result of over fifty years of award-winning teaching experience in both high school and college classrooms, Dr. Rising anticipates and answers potential questions from readers, and he successfully brings this subject alive in an illuminating and entertaining way. This book is therefore not only ideal for undergraduate mathematics majors as either a primary or supplemental text, but it also appeals to anyone with an interest in mathematics and its ideas. View Dr. Rising's book presentation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aqadHbc2YOA
Praise for the First Edition . . .
"A unique piece of work, a book for electronics engineering, in general, but well suited and excellently applicable also to biomedical engineering . . . I recommend it with no reservation, congratulating the authors for the job performed." -IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology
"Describes a broad range of sensors in practical use and some circuit designs; copious information about electronic components is supplied, a matter of great value to electronic engineers. A large number of applications are supplied for each type of sensor described . . . This volume is of considerable importance."-Robotica
In this new edition of their successful book, renowned authorities Ramon Pallàs-Areny and John Webster bring you up to speed on the latest advances in sensor technology, addressing both the explosive growth in the use of microsensors and improvements made in classical macrosensors. They continue to offer the only combined treatment for both sensors and the signal-conditioning circuits associated with them, following the discussion of a given sensor and its applications with signal-conditioning methods for this type of sensor. New and expanded coverage includes:
* New sections on sensor materials and microsensor technology
* Basic measurement methods and primary sensors for common physical quantities
* A wide range of new sensors, from magnetoresistive sensors and SQUIDs to biosensors
* The widely used velocity sensors, fiber-optic sensors, and chemical sensors
* Variable CMOS oscillators and other digital and intelligent sensors
* 68 worked-out examples and 103 end-of-chapter problems with annotated solutions