This 15th edition of the Agricultural Outlook edition presents the outlook for commodity markets during the 2009 to 2018 period, and analyses world market trends for the main agricultural products, as well as biofuels. It provides an assessment of agricultural market prospects for production, consumption, trade, stocks and prices of the included commodities. This edition of the Outlook was prepared in a period of unprecedented financial market turmoil and rapidly deteriorating global economic prospects. Because macroeconomic conditions are changing so quickly, this report complements the standard baseline projections with an analysis of revised short-term GDP prospects and alternative GDP recovery paths. Lower GDP scenarios result in lower commodity prices, with reductions in crop and biofuel prices about one-half those for livestock products. A sensitivity analysis to highly uncertain crude oil prices shows the important links between energy and agricultural prices. The Outlook also reports on a survey of various actors in the agri-food chain in terms of the current impacts of the global economic crisis and credit market constraints.
The issue of food security and the capacity of the agricultural sector to meet the rising demand for food remains very high on the international political agenda. This report provides a brief overview of critical factors such as land availability, productivity gains, water usage and climate change, and suggests that agricultural production could be significantly increased, provided there is sufficient investment in research, infrastructure and technological change, particularly in developing countries.
Le Panorama des administrations publiques fournit aux lecteurs une série d'indicateurs ayant pour but de contribuer à l'analyse et aux comparaisons internationales de la performance dans le secteur public. Des indicateurs sur les recettes, les dépenses et l'emploi dans les gouvernements sont fournis aux côtés de données sur les produits et résultats dans des secteurs clés tels que l'éducation, la santé et la justice. Le Panorama des administrations publiques inclus également des indicateurs sur la gouvernance et la gestion publique incluant les pratiques en matière de transparence de la gouvernance, de gestion des régulations, du fonctionnement des marchés publics et de la mise en oeuvre des réformes de l'emploi et de la rémunération dans les gouvernements depuis 2009. Bien que la mesure de la performance soit reconnue depuis longtemps comme ayant un rôle important à jouer pour accroître l'efficacité et l'efficience des administrations publiques, les conséquences de la crise économique et du resserrement de la pression fiscale dans de nombreux pays membres, rendent ces indicateurs plus nécessaires que jamais pour aider les gouvernements à prendre des décisions informées sur des arbitrages souvent difficiles et pour aider à restaurer la confiance dans les institutions publiques.
Tendances et politiques du tourisme, publié tous les deux ans, analyse les performances du tourisme et les principales tendances, initiatives et réformes liées aux politiques du tourisme pour 50 pays de l'OCDE et pays partenaires, en fournissant les données et analyses les plus récentes. Le rapport est une référence internationale et un point de repère pour mesurer l'efficacité des pays dans leur soutien à la compétitivité, l'innovation et la croissance dans le tourisme. Le tourisme a surmonté avec succès les effets de la crise économique mondiale, et la mise en place de politiques actives a joué un rôle essentiel dans le soutien à une économie du tourisme compétitive et durable. L'édition 2016 présente les tendances actuelles - données standardisées sur le tourisme interne, récepteur et émetteur, les entreprises et l'emploi, et la consommation du tourisme intérieur - et des analyses sur la façon dont un système de transport continu peut améliorer l'expérience touristique, ainsi que les possibilités, les défis et les implications de l'économie collaborative pour le tourisme.
The actions and policies of government touch our daily lives in countless ways. Quantifying and measuring government actions can help leaders make better decisions, and can help to hold government accountable to its citizens.
Government at a Glanceis a new, biennial publication of the OECD providing over 30 indicators describing government performance. It compares the political and institutional frameworks of government across OECD countries, as well as government revenues, expenditures and employment. It also includes indicators describing government policies and practices in integrity, e-government and open government, and introduces several composite indexes summarising key aspects of public management practices in human resource management, budgeting and regulatory management. For each figure, the book provides a dynamic link (StatLink) which directs the user to a web page where the corresponding data are available in Excel(r) format.
Health spending continues to rise inexorably, growing faster than the economy in most OECD countries. Most of this spending comes from the public purse. Given the recent economic downturn, countries are looking for ways to improve the efficiency of health spending. This publication examines current efforts to improve health care efficiency, including tools that show promise in helping health systems provide the best care for their money, such as pay for performance, co-ordination of care, health technology assessment and clinical guidelines, pharmaceutical re-imbursement and risk-sharing agreements, and information and communication technology.
www.oecd.org/health Further reading in this series Obesity and the Economics of Prevention (2010) Ensuring Quality in Health Care (2010) Achieving Better Value for Money in Health Care (2009) Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies in a Global Market (2008) The Looming Crisis in the Health Workforce: How Can OECD Countries Respond? (2008) Related reading Health at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators (2009)
Too many workers leave the labour market permanently due to health problems or disability, and too few people with reduced work capacity manage to remain in employment. This is a social and economic tragedy common to virtually all OECD countries. It also raises an apparent paradox that needs explaining: Why is it that the average health status is improving, yet large numbers of people of working age are leaving the workforce to rely on long-term sickness and disability benefits?
This report, the last in the OECD series Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers, synthesises the project´s findings and explores the possible factors behind the paradox described above. It highlights the roles of institutions and policies and concludes that higher expectations and better incentives for the main actors - workers, employers, doctors, public agencies and service providers - are crucial. Based on a review of good and bad practices across OECD countries, this report suggests a series of major reforms are needed to promote employment of people with health problems.
The report examines a number of critical policy choices between: tightening inflows and raising outflows from disability benefit, and promoting job retention and new hiring of people with health problems. It questions the need for distinguishing unemployment and disability as two distinct contingencies, emphasises the need for a better evidence base, and underlines the challenges for policy implementation.
In the same series Vol. 1: Norway, Poland and Switzerland (2006) Vol. 2: Australia, Luxembourg, Spain and the United Kingdom (2007) Vol. 3: Denmark, Finland, Ireland and the Netherlands (2008) Sweden: Will the Recent Reforms Make it? (2009) Canada: Opportunities for Collaboration (2010) www.oecd.org/els/disability
"Too much `red tape´!" is one of the most common complaints from businesses and citizens in OECD countries. Administrative simplification is a regulatory quality tool to review and reduce administrative and regulatory procedures. It has remained high on the agenda in most OECD countries over the last decade and continues to be so. Countries´ efforts to strengthen their competitiveness, productivity and entrepreneurship during the current recession have made simplification efforts even more urgent. Until now, efforts to reduce administrative burdens have primarily been driven by ambitions to improve the cost efficiency of administrative regulations, as these impose direct and indirect costs on regulated subjects. Many countries will finish their current projects over the next few years and must decide how to continue their efforts and how to make them more efficient. This report looks beyond 2010 and presents policy options for administrative simplification that are in line with current trends and developments. It provides policy makers with guidance on the available tools and explains common mistakes to be avoided when designing, undertaking and evaluating administrative simplification programmes.
Regional differences within OECD countries are often greater than those between countries and much inequality remains. This report explores what generates growth at the regional level. Based on in-depth econometric modelling and analyses, this report reframes the debate on regional policy and development, emphasising that opportunities for growth exist in all regions.
Expecting substantial savings and improved public services - a trend further accentuated by the financial and economic crisis beginning in 2008 - OECD countries have invested in the development of e-government services over the past 10-15 years. However, despite the initial exceptional take-up, governments later saw low adoption and low use of e-government services which are still far from satisfactory today.
This report gives a broad description of the shift in governments' focus on e-government development - from a government-centric to a user-centric approach. It gives a comprehensive overview of challenges to user take-up of e-government services in OECD countries and of the different types of approaches to improving it. The monitoring and evaluation of user take-up are also discussed, including the existence of formal measurement frameworks. Good practices are presented to illustrate the different concrete approaches used by OECD countries.
China has made enormous progress in developing the modern legal and regulatory foundation for the market economy. The private sector is now the main driver of growth, and new laws have gone a long way toward establishing private property rights, competition, and mechanisms for entry and exit comparable to those of many OECD countries. At the same time important challenges remain, including further clarification of the scope of state ownership, reform of relations among central and local governments, firmer establishment of the rule of law, and strengthening of regulatory institutions and processes.
This review of China's regulatory system focuses on the overall economic context for regulatory reform, the government´s capacity to manage regulatory reform, competition policy and enforcement, and market openness. The review also examines the regulatory framework in the electricity, water and health care sectors. As for OECD countries, the review follows a multidisciplinary and highly interactive approach. A number of OECD instruments and policies are used in this assessment, although the review also takes into account the specific challenges faced by the Chinese authorities. The review includes a comprehensive set of policy recommendations.
The Copenhagen metropolitan region accounts for nearly half of Denmark's national output and plays a key role for the country as a whole. Nevertheless, it has witnessed only modest economic growth over the last decade. This review of metropolitan area policy for Copenhagen examines key challenges including modest economic growth, scarcity of skilled workers and barriers to research and development. The report also examines how public institutions affect regional economic growth. Issues considered include: inter-municipal co-operation, local finance, public management, political leadership, and coordination mechanisms between the central government and the region.
International trade affects the price and availability of practically everything we buy. It also plays a role in many other domains, including jobs, the environment and the fight against poverty. OECD Insights: International Trade argues that prosperity has rarely, if ever, been achieved or sustained without trade. Trade alone, however, is not enough. Policies targeting employment, education, health and other issues are also needed to promote well-being and tackle the challenges of a globalised economy.
"The OECD is a major source for insightful analyses of current trade issues. It also plays a role in disseminating skilfully the results of less accessible writings on trade. This short book is a valuable addition to the latter endeavour and should be on the shelf of policy makers." -Jagdish Bhagwati, Columbia University
This publication presents contributions by international experts on various aspects of West African migration. It provides a contrasting perspective to current debates which essentially focus on security issues. This rather non-institutional approach promotes a constant dialogue based on analyses of the actual situation: the authors encourage "win-win" mobility for all parties involved (Europe, North Africa and West Africa), whether it be a host, transit or departure country.
The size and the economic significance of the public sector make it a major contributor to economic growth and social welfare. The goods and services government provides, its redistributive and regulatory powers, and how those are exercised affect the way business is conducted and people live their lives in every country. Citizens are entitled to understand how government works and how public revenues are used. This book provides a significant contribution to developing a coherent, reliable system for data collection and analysis. It summarises the available OECD and other international data on public sector inputs and processes. It also examines the existing internationally comparable data on outputs and outcomes, and recommends new approaches to measurement.
Regulatory impact analysis (RIA) is a systemic approach to critically assessing the positive and negative effects of proposed and existing regulations and non-regulatory alternatives. This publication brings together recent OECD research and analysis concerning methodological issues and country experiences with RIA. The collected papers cover a number of challenges to the effectiveness of RIA including: systemic factors which influence the quality of RIA; methodological frameworks that can assist RIA to improve regulation; guidance on using RIA to avoid unnecessary regulation of competitive markets; and a review of the use of RIA in the regulation of corporate governance across a number of OECD countries. Taken together, this publication provides valuable, practical guidance on how to improve the performance of RIA systems to promote economic welfare through better quality regulation.
Lobbying can improve policy making by providing valuable insights and data, but it can also result in unfair advantages for vested interests if the process is opaque and standards are lax.
Rising public health care spending remains a problem in virtually all OECD and EU member countries. As a consequence, there is growing interest in policies that will ease this pressure through improved health system performance. This report examines selected policies that may help countries better achieve the goal of improved health system efficiency and thus better value for money. Drawing on multinational data sets and case studies, it examines a range policy instruments. These include: the role of competition in health markets; the scope for improving care coordination; better pharmaceutical pricing policies; greater quality control supported by stronger information and communication technology in health care; and increased cost sharing.
Over the past decade, Mexico has undergone significant economic and political reform. This period has witnessed important improvements in the health of public finances which should place Mexico in a better position to withstand the current global economic crisis. Since 2006, the Mexican government has introduced a number of laws and reforms that aim to address structural challenges, improve fiscal responsibility and transparency, and create a budget process and fiscal framework that are more efficient and transparent and more in line with international practices. This review discusses the recent reforms in Mexico and the current systems for budget formulation, the role of Congress, budget execution and financial management, and accountability for results (performance budgeting), and makes recommendations for further action.
Why do some regions grow faster than others, and in ways that do not always conform to economic theory? This is a central issue in today´s economic climate, when policy makers are looking for ways to stimulate new and sustainable growth.
OECD work suggests that there is no one-size-fits-all answer to regional growth policy. Rather, regions grow in very varied ways and the simple concentration of resources in a place is not sufficient for long-term growth. This report draws on OECD analysis of regional data (including where growth happens, country-by-country), policy reviews and case studies. It argues that it is how investments are made, regional assets used and synergies exploited that can make the difference. Public investment should prioritise longer-term impacts on productivity growth and combine measures in an integrated way. This suggests an important role for regional policies in shaping growth and economic recovery policies, but also challenges policy makers to implement policy reforms.
In all OECD countries, governments collect revenues through taxes and redistribute this public money, often by obligatory spending on social programmes such as education or health care. Their tax systems usually include "tax expenditures" - provisions that allow certain groups of people, such as small businessmen, retired people or working mothers, or those who have undertaken certain activities, such as charitable donations, to pay less in taxes.
The use of tax expenditures by governments is pervasive and growing. At a time when many government budgets are threatened by population ageing and adverse cyclical developments, there is a pressing need to avoid inefficient government programmes, some of which may utilise tax expenditures.
This book sheds light on the use of tax expenditures, mainly through a study of ten OECD countries: Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. This book will help government officials and the public better understand some of the technical and policy issues behind the use of tax expenditures. It highlights key trends and successful practices, and addresses a broad range of government finance issues, including tax policy making, tax and budget efficiency, fiscal responsibility and rule making.
The movement of personnel between employment in the public and private sectors, referred to as the "revolving door" phenomenon, raises particular attention in the context of the response of governments to the financial and economic crisis. This OECD survey of 30 member countries shows that the vast majority of countries have established basic standards for preventing post-public employment conflict of interest. But few have tailored these standards to address risk areas and professions such as regulators or public procurement officials. Enforcing standards and imposing suitable sanctions remains a challenge for many countries.
The principles presented in this volume serve as a point of reference for policy makers and managers to review and modernise post-public employment policies. It is part of the pathfinding efforts of the OECD to promote public sector integrity for cleaner, fairer and stronger economies.
The Guidelines are recommendations to international business for conduct in such areas as labour, environment, consumer protection and the fight against corruption. The recommendations are made by the adhering governments and, although not binding, governments are committed to promoting their observance. This Annual Report provides an account of the actions taken by the 41 adhering governments over the 12 months to June 2009 to enhance the contribution of the Guidelines to the improved functioning of the global economy. In nine years, the Guidelines have consolidated their position as one of the world's principal corporate responsibility instruments This edition focuses on consumer empowerment and responsible business conduct, notably the positive impact responsible consumers can exercise on international business behaviour through their purchasing decisions and OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises´ role in promoting and protecting consumer interests. Special attention is given to supply chains, financial institutions and climate change.
Using this Guide will facilitate the practical implementation of the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises in the areas of transparency and accountability. It provides viable policy options and a step-by-step road map on how to address typical difficulties, risks and hurdles that may be encountered. It also provides concrete examples of good practices that can serve as a reference and inspiration. The Guide will help governments, their ownership entities and other stakeholders to evaluate existing practices and support reforms. In most countries, improving transparency and accountability in state-owned enterprises entails a number of complex challenges. Addressing these, with the help of this Guide, is an important step in the process of establishing well-governed and economically sound state-owned enterprises
The markets for goods and services have undergone significant changes over the past 20 years. Regulatory reform, more open global markets, new technologies, and growth in the role of services in economic activity have driven the changes, which in many instances have provided significant benefits to consumers. Relatively little attention has been paid to the challenges these developments have posed for consumers. More choice and more complexity in many markets have made it increasingly difficult for them to compare and assess the value of products and services. The challenges for consumers have raised similar challenges for the government authorities responsible for protecting them from unfair commercial practices and fraud. This book examines how markets have evolved and provides insights for improved consumer policy making. It explores, for the first time, how what we have learned through the study of behavioural economics is changing the way policy makers are addressing problems.